Watchtower, Adventists & Freemasonry
Many of the beliefs and symbols included in Watchtower publications during the leadership of Russell are what Jehovah's Witnesses now claim to be of pagan and even occult background.
If you enjoyed The Da Vinci Code by Dan Brown and are interested in the development of modern religion you will be intrigued by this section. A number of the symbols and teachings discussed by Brown as having origins with the Knights Templar, Freemasons and Illuminati, and tracing back to the Egyptians, have been used by Mormons, Christian Science and Russell's Watch Tower Bible Students.
The terms Watch Tower, Golden Age, Jehovah, New World Order, the symbols of the all-seeing-eye, winged sun disk, two columns, pyramids and Russell's strong Zionist stance are part of Freemasonry.
A great deal of discussion has centred on whether Russell, the founder of the Watch Tower Society, had connections with Freemasons, due to the many Masonic symbols introduced under his leadership. The evidence is not conclusive that Russell adopted these beliefs from Freemasons, and it is probable that he took these beliefs and symbols from Second Adventists.
Watchtower claims it was chosen as God's sole representative for being the only clean organisation in 1919. Inclusion of pagan symbols in its worship until the 1930's raises the question as to why God directed, or even allowed, symbols of this kind to identify his people, even well after the claimed cleansing of his spiritual temple in 1919.
The term Watchtower and Watch Tower Society, which identify the organisation behind Jehovah's Witnesses and their magazine, are a namesake from the Adventist Movement. The Proclaimers book admits in a footnote;
"The expression ‘Watch Tower’ is not unique to Russell’s writings or to Jehovah’s Witnesses. George Storrs published a book in the 1850’s called The Watch Tower: Or, Man in Death; and the Hope for a Future Life. The name was also incorporated in the title of various religious periodicals." Jehovah's Witnesses - Proclaimers of God's Kingdom p.48
Russell had great interest in the pyramid of Gizeh (or Giza) and its relationship with Bible prophecy, and Rutherford continued to use the pyramid of Gizeh as part of prophecy until the 1930's.
Russell's belief in the sign of the pyramid most likely came from the Second Adventists. In 1859, John Taylor published The Great Pyramid: Why Was It Built? And Who Built It? He put forward the idea that the architect and supervisor of the Great Pyramid was not an Egyptian but Noah. Other pyramidologists believe it was Melchizedek. Piazzi Smyth, an astronomer, accepted this idea. In June 1876, he published an article in the Bible Examiner, a journal owned by George Storrs in Brooklyn. George Storrs went on to run a series of articles on the Pyramid and its prophetic significance in the Herald of Life and the Coming Kingdom. In 1877, Joseph Seiss published a book on the pyramid entitled Miracle in Stone. Russell attributed his knowledge on pyramids to Smyth.
"Here, thanks to the very accurate measurements of all the passages, furnished by Prof. Smyth, we are enabled to reach what to us are by far the most interesting features of the testimony of this "Witness" yet delivered." Studies In the Scriptures Series III - Thy Kingdom Come p.338
"Prof. Smyth found the first of these measures (a) to be 1874 Pyramid inches, the second (b), 1881 Pyramid inches, and the third (c), 1910 Pyramid inches; Thus reduced, they would give the dates (a) October, 1874, (b) October, 1881 and (c) October, 1910 A.D." Studies In the Scriptures Series III - Thy Kingdom Come p.363
These three dates were important in early Watchtower prophetic doctrine.
Pyramids are a major aspect of Freemason teaching and many pagan religions. They were generally used as temples and played an important part in the belief of the afterlife. According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica DVD 2002:
"Pyramids have been built at various times in Egypt, The Sudan, Ethiopia, western Asia, Greece, Cyprus, Italy, India, Thailand, Mexico, South America, and on some islands of the Pacific Ocean. Those of Egypt and of Central and South America are the best known."
Russell's interest was particularly in the Great Pyramid of Gizeh, built for Cheops. It is the northernmost of a group of 3 pyramids built in Gizeh and is the largest and oldest of the 3, estimated by archaeologists to have been built over 4,000 years ago. It is considered the most colossal single building ever erected. Its base points are accurately oriented to the four cardinal points of the compass.
Russell's belief in the message of the pyramids was based on passages from Isaiah 19 and Jeremiah 32.
""In that day there shall be an altar to the Lord in the midst of the land of Egypt, for a sign and for a witness." (Isaiah 19: 19, 20.) Not only did God mention prophetically the great Pyramid in Isaiah, but also in Jeremiah 32:20, where we read that "He set signs and wonders in the land of Egypt, even unto this day."" The Bible Students Monthly (1913) Vol.5 No.11
He believed that the sign of Egypt was related to the dimension of the pyramid of Gizeh. In the early 1900's he went to Egypt to measure the pyramid and claimed that the passage of the great pyramid of Gizeh was 2170 inches and that it was built in 2170 B.C.E. The significance of this teaching is highlighted by it having over 60 pages devoted to it in Thy Kingdom Come.
"The Great Pyramid in Egypt is a Witness to all these events of the ages and of our day -- testifying in symbols? The Pyramid's downward passage under "A Draconis" symbolizes the course of Sin? Its First Ascending Passage symbolizes the Jewish age? Its grand Gallery symbolized the Gospel age? Its Upper Step symbolized the approaching period of tribulation and anarchy, "Judgments," upon Christendom? Its King's Chamber the Divine Nature, etc., of the Overcoming Church -- the Christ, Head and Body? Its Ante-Chamber the Correction in Righteousness of the "Great Company" etc.? Its Queen's Chamber those of Israel and the world who attain Restitution?" Studies In the Scriptures Series I - The Divine Plan of the Ages 1909 edition end notes
Pyramid as appearing in Studies in the Scriptures - Thy Kingdom Come and on the cover of Studies in the Scriptures - The Divine Plan of the Ages 1913 Edition.
Chart of the Ages from Studies in the Scriptures - The Divine Plan
In a monumental display of deceit, when Russell revised his doctrine to focus more on 1914 than 1874, he updated his pyramid measurements in later editions of Thy Kingdom Come to suit his new interpretation. Russell originally used the size of a pyramid to prove that 1874 A.D. marked the beginning of the period of trouble, as shown below in the 1891 edition of Thy Kingdom Come. In the 1911 edition of Thy Kingdom Come, Russell changed the pyramid measurements by 41 inches, to show that 1914 would be the beginning of the time of trouble.
Charles Taze Russell is buried in a family owned grave at the Rosemont United Cemetery, 226 Cemetery Lane, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Next to his grave is a pyramid erected as a memorial. Weighing several tons, it is complete with symbols of the knight's templar, All-Seeing-Eye and the inscription Watch Tower Bible And Tract Society. This cemetery contains the remains of known Masons, and it is claimed that Russell was embalmed at death. A Masonic temple, built after Russell's death, overlooks his grave.
"AT THE GRAVE On Monday, a party of about 150 was conducted by Brother Bohnet to the grave of Brother Russell. Upon a hillside, sloping towards the south, we joined hands around the grave and sang: 'Blest be the tie that binds our hearts in Christian love; the fellowship of kindred minds is like to that above.' Our last lingering look upon the scene recalled the peaceful manner of our Pastor's 'passing beyond the veil.' Brother Rutherford's words came to mind: 'I am glad this prison experience was reserved for us, rather than for our dear Brother Russell.' We visited the marble works and there watched the workmen slowly but surely chisel out the monument to be erected as a memorial to the Society. The Watchtower Society burial lots in Rosemont United Cemeteries, five miles due north of Pittsburgh City, contain ample grave space for all the members of the Bethel family, and the pilgrims and their wives - in all more than 275 adult graves. In the exact center of the Bethel lot will be erected diagonally the Pyramid Shape Monument as designed by Brother Bohnet, and accepted by Brother Russell as the most fitting emblem for an enduring monument on the Society's burial space. The size of this structure is nine feet across the base, and its apex stone is exactly seven feet above the ground surface level." Souvenir Report of the Bible Students Convention, Pittsburgh, PA. 1919 Jan 2-5 p.7
The Proclaimers book discusses Russell's funeral, including an image of this tombstone, but neither mentions or shows his impressive pyramid memorial stone.
Jehovah's Witnesses - Proclaimers of God's Kingdom p.64
Watchtower belief in pyramidology continued under the leadership of Rutherford as late as 1925.
"In the passages of the Great Pyramid of Gizeh the agreement of one or two measurements with the present-truth chronology might seem accidental, but the correspondency of dozens of measurements proves that the same God designed both pyramid and plan." Watchtower 1922 Jun 15 p.187
"In the great Pyramid of Egypt, standing as a silent and inanimate witness of the Lord, is a messenger; and its testimony speaks with great eloquence concerning the divine plan." Watchtower 1925 May 15 p.148
Cover of Watchtower's Studies in the Scriptures - Thy Kingdom Come, 1923 Edition.
This teaching was absolutely torn apart and discarded by Rutherford in the Watchtower 1928 Nov 15 pages 339-344.
"Then Satan put his knowledge in dead stone, which may be called Satan's Bible, and not God's stone witness. In erecting the pyramid, of course, Satan would put in it some truth, because that is his method of practicing fraud and deceit." Watchtower 1928 Nov 15 p.344
Was Rutherford implying that Russell, the religion's founder, was guided by Satan to promote this teaching? It is astounding that after using pyramids to prop up the 1914 teaching for so many decades, that such a dramatic change would occur.
Since that time, Watchtower contains a discernible lack of mention of its historical stance on pyramidology. When the 2012 Watchtower Aug 15 p.31 displays an image of the "Chart of the Ages" from Studies in the Scriptures - The Divine Plan of the Ages, it conveniently obscures the pyramid behind an overlay of Benjamin Barton.
Studies in the Scriptures - The Divine Plan of the Ages
Watchtower 2012 Aug 15 p.31
Pyramidology was not a mainstream teaching of Christendom that Bible Students had inadvertently inherited, as Watchtower claims regarding other early practices, such as Christmas. It was an Adventist teaching that Russell introduced. Neither did Jesus cleanse Watchtower of this teaching when he came to his spiritual temple in 1919, as Rutherford continued to promote it until the late nineteen twenties. Though Rutherford claims it was from Satan's Bible, he himself had written about it, and Russell had introduced it under the guise of being directed by Holy Spirit as God's chosen "mouthpiece."
Cross and Crown
Watchtower used the Cross and Crown symbol for over half a century, until 1931. The crown symbolises the heavenly reward and the cross is for the trials of life endured as a Christian. Bible Students wore Cross and Crown pendants, and the image adorned the cover of The Watch Tower magazine.
An image of Charles Russell shows him seated below the Cross and Crown, mounted in his study.
"For years, Bible Students wore a Cross and Crown as a badge of identification, and this symbol was on the front cover of the "Watch Tower" from 1891 to 1931. But in 1928 it was emphasized that not a decorative symbol but one's activity as a witness showed he was a Christian. In 1936 it was pointed out that the evidence indicates that Christ died on a stake, not a two-beamed cross." Jehovah's Witnesses - Proclaimers of God's Kingdom p.200
Whilst Proclaimers mentions that the Bible Students wore a cross and crown, this brief reference fails to explain what this symbol represented, and why they used the Cross and Crown.
The Cross and Crown is a symbol synonymous with Christian sects and secret societies such as the Illuminati and Christian Scientists, and also appears on some Catholic Churches.
Christian Science Christmas Messages
The Cross and Crown is also referred to as the Knight's Templar, as it is used to identify the Freemasonry group the Knight's Templar, in honour of the 12th century Knights that are said to have devoted their lives to the crusades, protecting pilgrims to Jerusalem, and guarding the Holy Grail.
A Wreath surrounds the Cross and Crown that appeared on The Watch Tower cover. The wreath symbol also is used in the United Nations and Star Trek logos, both heavily influenced by Freemasons.
In 1933, the Cross and Crown was identified as an idol, and in 1934 the cross started to be described as pagan. (The Golden Age 1934 Feb 28 p.336)
"... all idols of character development and foolish hobbies, such as the pyramid of Egypt, chronology, tabernacle in the wilderness, cross-and-crown pins, and all like things, must be cut off and put away." Preparation 1933 p.239
The Cross and Crown were used for over 50 years, and appear on each side of the pyramid monument that adorns Russell's grave. If Watchtower is Jehovah's Organisation and directed by his holy spirit, why would Jehovah allow Watchtower for decades to promote what it now claims is pagan symbology?
The Winged Sun Disk
The Winged Sun Disk, an Egyptian religious symbol used by Freemasons and occult groups, appeared on the cover of some editions of Studies In the Scriptures Series.
The 4000 year old Winged Sun Disk is found in Egypt and Mesopotamia, and associated with the sun and sun deities.
The sixth century Iranian religion Zoroastrianism adopted it with inclusion of a human figure under the term Faravahar.
A Masonic reference work describes the winged sun disk it this way;
"... the Winged-Disk, with the Uraei of Egypt, the original of which we find in the text summarized by Naville in the "Myths of Horus," pII. xii. ff; "horus commanded Thoth that the Winged-Sun-Disk, with Uraei, should be brought into every sanctuary wherein he dwelt, and into every sanctuary of all the gods of the lands of the South and the North, and in Amentet, in order that they might drive away evil from therein...." This is what is meant by the Winged-Disks, with the Uraei, which are seen over the entrances of the courts of the temples of all the gods and goddesses of Egypt." (Churchwald, Albert, The Signs and Symbols of Primordial Man (London: George Allen & Co., Ltd.) 1913 p. 344)
The Rosicrucian Order, AMORC (Ancient and Mystical Order Rosae Crucis) is an occult organization that uses the Winged-Disk as their logo.
Rosicrucians are said to have existed for millennium and the AMORC organization started in 1915. As stated on their website;
"The goal of the Council is to bring cosmic help to all those in need of it. The Council does this by putting certain spiritual energies into motion and directing them in accordance with mystical law and natural principles." rosicrucian.org/home.html (30 Mar 2005)
A Rosicrucian reference work, The Rosicrucians Their Teachings, (Swinburne, Clymer, Quakertown, PA.: The Philosophical Pub. Co., 1923 p. 112), says this about the winged-disk or globe;
"The Winged Globe is pre-eminently a Rosicrucian symbol, although the Illuminati may lay claim to it, and it may be admitted that it is of Egyptian origin. The Winged Globe is the symbol of the perfected soul making its flight back to the source of its creation in the Elysian fields beyond."
This is not a common symbol of Christianity that Russell inadvertently borrowed, this was an unchristian symbol solely of pagan origins.
In more modern times, Watchtower has described this symbol as pagan, carefully avoiding mention that this symbol was used by Watchtower itself.
All Seeing Eye
Crowning Russell's pyramid is the All Seeing Eye, a symbol used by Egyptians, Buddhism, occult worship, Freemasonry, Mormons, and appears on the American dollar bill.
Eye of Horus
Other names for this are Eye of Horus or Utchat Eye, as it is associated with both the Egyptian God Horus (god of war) and his father Osiris (who along with Isis comprise the Egyptian Triad). Called the "mal ochio" (evil eye), this object is regarded by Satanists as the symbol of Lucifer. It is known to have been Satanist Aleister Crowley's favourite symbol.
To understand why Russell had an interest in the All Seeing Eye, we can look to the meaning Freemasons bestowed upon it, as explained by Albert G. Mackey, M.D.
"What is the source of this symbol and its meaning? An important symbol borrowed by the Freemasons from the nations of antiquity. Among the Egyptians, Osiris, their chief deity was symbolized by an open eye." The eyes of Jehovah are in every place," beholding and watching, the evil and the good. The "All-Seeing Eye" is a symbol of watchfulness and the eye of the Grand Architect. It is the symbol of his Divine watchfulness and care of the Universe. The All-Seeing Eye, whom the Sun, Moon, and Stars obey, and under whose watchful care even comets perform their stupendous revolutions, pervades the inmost recesses of the human heart, and will reward us according to our merits. The "Rays" represent "Light". Freemasons are emphatically called "The Sons of Light" because they are entitled to be in possession of the true meaning and knowledge of this symbol. It is in fact the first of all symbols presented to the initiate, and continues to be presented to him in various forms throughout his Masonic career. But as Light not only came from God, it also makes mans way clear before him, so it is employed to signify moral truth. Prov. 15:8 Psalm 33:18" phoenixmasonry.org/ (15 Jan 2005)
"The All-Seeing Eye is another, and a still more important, symbol of the same great Being." phoenixmasonry.org (as of 15 Jan 2005)
"The All-Seeing Eye may, then, be considered as a symbol of God manifested in his omnipresence-his guardian and preserving character-to which Solomon alludes in the Book of Proverbs (xv. 3), when he says, "The eyes of Jehovah are in every place, beholding (or as it might be more faithfully translated, watching) the evil and the good." It is a symbol of the Omnipresent Deity." masonicdictionary.com/eye1 (15 Jan 2005)
The reason Freemasons use this symbol invokes Biblical connotations, yet has pagan origins.
The Tetragrammaton and word Jehovah have been used by Freemasons over the centuries.
"Another important symbol is the Ineffable Name, with which the series of ritualistic symbols will be concluded.
The Tetragrammaton, or Ineffable Word,-the Incommunicable Name,-is a symbol-for rightly-considered it is nothing more than a symbol-that has more than any other (except, perhaps, the symbols connected with sun-worship), pervaded the rites of antiquity.
The triangle is another symbol which is entitled to our consideration. There is, in fact, no other symbol which is more various in its application or more generally diffused throughout the whole system of both the Spurious and the Pure Freemasonry.
The equilateral triangle appears to have been adopted by nearly all the nations of antiquity as a symbol of the Deity. Among the Hebrews, it has already been stated that this figure, with a yod in the centre, was used to represent the tetragrammaton, or ineffable name of God." phoenixmasonry.org
The following are Masonic images and a 9 inch Model Temple at the Masonic Library and Museum of Pennsylvania.
The star on the original Watchtower seal has Masonic connotations, being used on Masonic Seals.
Two columns appeared on the invitation to The Photo Drama of Creation, and some editions of Studies in the Scriptures.
These columns have Masonic origins, as explained at sacred-texts.com;
"You entered the Lodge between two columns. They represent the two which stood in the porch of the Temple, on each side of the great eastern gateway. These pillars, of bronze, four fingers breadth in thickness, were, according to the most authentic account--that in the First and that in the Second Book of Kings, confirmed in Jeremiah--eighteen cubits high, with a capital five cubits high. The capitals were enriched by pomegranates of bronze, covered by bronze net-work, and ornamented with wreaths of bronze; and appear to have imitated the shape of the seed-vessel of the lotus or Egyptian lily, a sacred symbol to the Hindus and Egyptians. The pillar or column on the right, or in the south, was named, as the Hebrew word is rendered in our translation of the Bible, JACHIN: and that on the left BOAZ. Our translators say that the first word means, "He shall establish;" and the second, "in it is strength." These columns were imitations, by Kh?r?m, the Tyrian artist, of the great columns consecrated to the Winds and Fire, at the entrance to the famous Temple of Malkarth, in the city of Tyre. It is customary, in Lodges of the York Rite, to see a celestial globe on one, and a terrestrial globe on the other; but these are not warranted, if the object be to imitate the original two columns of the Temple." sacred-texts.com/mas/md/md02.htm (9 Apr 2006)
The Pleiades are a dipper-shaped cluster of stars situated in the "shoulder" of the constellation Taurus. To the ancient Romans the constellation of the Pleiades was known for its association with homosexuality. In the 20th Century, it was popularised by the UFO and flying saucer buffs. Also known as The Seven Sisters, it is mentioned in the Bible in Job 9:9, Job 38:31 and Amos 5:8. The constellation symbol is found on the west tower of the Mormon Temple and was known by the Egyptians as the "Dragon of the Seven Stars."
I have heard Jehovah's Witnesses belittle the Mormon belief that they shall rule on planets as gods. It may surprise these people that both Russell and Rutherford taught that when they died they would be taken to the Pleiades constellation, which was said to be the dwelling place of God. This is a close parallel with the Mormon belief, that on their resurrection they become gods on various planets.
Russell took this idea from Seiss. Seiss taught that the physical construction of the Great Pyramid indicated that Alcyone (the central star in the Pleiades constellation) is at the centre of the universe. This belief appears in Studies in the Scriptures, Series 3, Thy Kingdom Come page 327.
Rutherford continued with the teaching, with mention of Pleiades in the 1927 book Creation.
"The face to the deep, of course, would be toward the Pleiades, which are claimed to be the habitation of Jehovah." Creation 1927 p.94
Pleiades was discussed in more detail in the 1928 book Reconciliation.
"The constellation of the seven stars forming the Pleides appears to be the crowning center around which the known systems of the planets revolve even as our sun's planets obey the sun and travel in their respective orbits. It has been suggested, and with much weight, that one of the stars of that group is the dwelling-place of Jehovah and the place of the highest heavens; that it is the place to which the inspired writer referred when he said: "Hear thou from thy dwelling place, even from heaven" (2 Chron. 6:21); and that it is the place to which Job referred when under inspiration he wrote: "Canst thou bind the sweet influences of Pleiades, or loose the bands of Orion?"--Job 38:31.
The constellation of the Pleiades is a small one compared with others which scientific instruments disclose to the wondering eyes of man. But the greatness in size of other stars or planets is small when compared with the Pleiades in importance, because the Pleiades is the place of the eternal throne of God." Reconciliation p.14
This doctrine was not discontinued until 1953.
"Some attribute striking qualities to these constellations or star groups and on the basis of such they then offer private interpretations of Job 38:31, 32 that amaze their hearers. Their views are not always sound from the standpoint of astronomy, and when viewed Scripturally they are completely without foundation.... Hence it is useless to indulge in unprofitable speculations. Incidentally, Pleiades can no longer be considered the center of the universe and it would be unwise for us to try to fix God's throne as being at a particular spot in the universe. Were we to think of the Pleiades as his throne we might improperly view with special veneration that cluster of stars." Watchtower 1953 Nov 15 p.703
The Watchtower subtly blames the members, saying 'some attribute striking qualities', but does not refer to the fact that the reason the members had this belief was that it had been taught in Watchtower publications.
Astrology & Spiritualism
Russell was not only into Egyptology, but also referred to Astrology for confirmation of his predictions.
"The above thoughts came to us as we recently read the predictions of some noted astrologers, whose information we credit to the spirit demons and not to ability to read destiny in the stars. One of these in particular closely touches dates and incidents on the line of our Scriptural expectations as follows:--
ASTROLOGICAL PREDICTIONS OF OUR TIME
"In a dozen publications of this present springtime over all Europe astrologers agree that an extraordinary period is approaching. In the first place Saturn enters the sign of the Fishes in April, 1905, to remain there during 1906 and 1907. He will come out only in July, 1908. And these conjunctions, most rare in astrology, promise to be particularly hard on France."" Zion's Watch Tower 1905 Oct 1 p.293
The constellations of the Zodiac were regarded in 1914 as of Divine origin, with each of the 12 Zodiacal signs having corresponding statements in the Bible.
"AN ASTROLOGER'S OUTLOOK
We seriously question all the claims of astrology; yet the following - from whatever source the suggestions come, even though of the adversary himself - seem remarkably true to our expectations based upon the Word of the Lord. For this reason alone we present them here, as follows: -
Saturn is the representative of the great motive power that has dominated the mind of man up to the present time....
Jupiter, representing law, religion and morality, has been perforce subservient to Saturn's greater and more potent force. When Uranus and Jupiter meet in the humane sign of Aquarius in 1914, the long-promised era will have made a fair start in the work of setting man free to work out his own salvation, and will insure the ultimate realization of dreams and ideals of all. ...
In 1903 Jupiter will be in the Sign of Pisces-sign of the feet, or understanding, and the synthesis of the new religion is Love." Zion's Watch Tower 1903 May 1 p.131
Uranus and Jupiter meet in the humane sign of Aquarius every 80 or so years, and this occurrence is held as a powerful sign by Astrologers. The start of World War One in 1914 has been stated by Astrologers to be proof that extraordinary events do occur with the meeting of Uranus and Jupiter in Aquarius.
The 1933 book Occult Theocrasy, tracing religious occult beliefs throughout history, includes apt discussion of The Watch Tower.
"In 1879 Russell founded The Watch Tower of which he was the sole editor. The Russellite teaching, drawing its own arbitrary conclusions and proclaiming them as final, professes to prove from Biblical sources that all Christian churches are evil and corrupt, that the time of the Gentiles ended in 1914, and that the Jews must henceforth reign supreme over the world. It also elaborates an occult dogma alleged to be based on biblical precedents."1
A look at the history of Jehovah's Witnesses show Russell was greatly influenced by Masonic teachings, partly due to the views of Adventist teachers around him. These were not a minor error on his part, but rather well developed teachings that were promoted for fifty years, well into the leadership of Rutherford. Long after Jesus is said to have inspected and cleansed his organization in 1919, Jehovah's Witnesses continued to promote these pagan views as truth. It is difficult to reconcile these teachings with Watchtower statements that they are the only channel the Lord uses to feed his members with truth, and that there has been no significant change in the truths they have promoted.
1 Occult Theocrasy, Volume 1, Lady Queenborough Edith Starr Miller (published posthumously for private circulation only, 1933) p.539
Written 2007. Latest update Oct 2016.
Paul Grundy 2005 - 2016